BIOSSEGURANÇA EM ODONTOLOGIA E COVID-19: UMA REVISÃO INTEGRATIVA

BIOSAFETY IN DENTISTRY AND COVID-19: AN INTEGRATIVE REVIEW

  • Maria Helaynne Diniz Faria Acadêmica de Odontologia da Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Caicó-RN.
  • Lucas Dantas Pereira Acadêmico de Odontologia da Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Caicó-RN.
  • Arthur Barbosa Palmeira Limeira Acadêmico de Odontologia da Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Caicó-RN.
  • Ane Beatriz Santos Dantas Acadêmica de Odontologia da Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Caicó-RN.
  • Jamile Marinho Bezerra de Oliveira Moura Docente Adjunto IV do Departamento de Odontologia da Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Caicó-RN.
  • Gilmara Celli Maia de Almeida Docente Adjunto IV do Departamento de Odontologia da Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Caicó-RN.
Palavras-chave: Pandemia, COVID-19, Odontologia, Biossegurança

Resumo

Diante da pandemia causada pelo novo coronavírus, as práticas de biossegurança tornam-se ainda mais importantes devido à exposição de riscos à saúde de profissionais e pacientes. Este estudo trata-se de uma revisão integrativa, com objetivo de verificar as condutas dos profissionais e de biossegurança adotadas na prática odontológica com o surgimento da COVID-19. Foram pesquisados estudos primários e secundários, publicados no período de dezembro de 2019 a maio de 2020. Na estratégia de busca, foram utilizadas as palavras “dentistry”, “covid-19”, “coronavirus”, “dental practice”, “dental health care”, “biosecurity” e “biosafety”. Os resultados demonstraram a necessidade de investigar casos suspeitos de COVID-19; priorizar atendimentos de urgência e emergência; usar enxaguatórios bucais pré-atendimento e minimizar produção de aerossóis com uso de diques de borracha e sucção de alta potência. Equipamentos de Proteção Individual (EPI) como protetores faciais e jalecos descartáveis devem ser acrescentados nos atendimentos, além da necessidade de maior controle na desinfecção de superfícies e adequações no ambiente odontológico. Conclui-se que critérios mais rigorosos de biossegurança foram implementados na Odontologia com o surgimento da COVID-19. No entanto, ainda não existem evidências bem estabelecidas, apenas adaptações de protocolos e mecanismos instituídos em surtos epidêmicos anteriores, ocasionados por vírus semelhantes, como o SARS-CoV.

 

ABSTRACT

In view of the pandemic caused by the new coronavirus, biosafety practices become even more important due to the exposure of health risks to professionals and patients. This study was an integrative review, with the objective of verifying the guidelines of the professionals and the biosafety adopted in the dental practice with emergence of the COVID-19. Primary and secondary studies, published from December 2019 to May 2020, were searched. In the search strategy, the words “dentistry”, “covid-19”, “coronavirus”, “dental practice”, “dental health care”, “biosecurity” e “biosafety”. The results demonstrated the need to investigate suspected cases of COVID-19; prioritize urgent and emergency care; use of mouthwash before the clinical procedure and  minimize the production of aerosols using rubber and high power suction. Personal protective equipment (PPE), such as face shields and disposable lab coats, should be added to the developments, in addition to the need for greater control in disinfecting surfaces and adjustments in the dental environment. It was concluded that the most stringent biosafety requirements were implemented in Dentistry with emergence of the COVID-19. However, there are still no devices available, only adaptations of protocols and mechanisms instituted in previous epidemic outbreaks, caused by similar viruses, such as SARS-CoV.

KEYWORDS: Pandemics; Dentistry; Containment of Biohazards.

 

RESUMEN

En vista de la pandemia causada por el nuevo coronavirus, las prácticas de bioseguridad se vuelven aún más importantes debido a la exposición de riesgos para la salud de profesionales y pacientes. Este estudio es una revisión integradora, con el objetivo de verificar la conducta de los profesionales y la bioseguridad adoptada en la práctica dental con la aparición de COVID-19. Se realizaron búsquedas en estudios primarios y secundarios, publicados desde diciembre de 2019 hasta mayo de 2020. En la estrategia de búsqueda, se utilizaron las palabras "odontología", "covid-19", "coronavirus", "práctica dental", "Atención de salud dental", "bioseguridad" y "bioseguridad". Los resultados demostraron la necesidad de investigar casos sospechosos de COVID-19; priorizar la atención urgente y de emergencia; use enjuagues bucales previos al servicio y minimice la producción de aerosoles con el uso de diques de goma y succión poderoso. Se debe agregar equipo de protección personal (PPE), como protectores faciales y batas de laboratorio desechables, durante las visitas, además de la necesidad de un mayor control en la desinfección de superficies y ajustes en el entorno dental. Se concluye que se implementaron criterios de bioseguridad más estrictos en Odontología con la aparición de COVID-19. Sin embargo, todavía no hay evidencia bien establecida, solo adaptaciones de protocolos y mecanismos instituidos en brotes epidémicos anteriores, causados ​​por virus similares, como el SARS-CoV.

PALABRAS CLAVE: Pandemias; Odontología; Contención de Riesgos Biológicos.

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Publicado
2020-07-22